Biochemical and pathological changes in the male rat kidney and bladder following exposure to continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field on postnatal days 22-59
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Purpose: To investigate the effect on male rat kidney and bladder tissues of exposure to 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) applied on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive. Materials and methods: Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 21 days, were used. These were divided equally into one of three groups, control (CG), sham (SG) or EMF (EMFG). CG was not exposed to any procedure. SG rats were kept inside a cage, without being exposed to the effect of EMF, for 1 h a day on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive. EMFG rats were exposed to continuous 900-MHz EMF for 1 h a day under the same conditions as those for the SG rats. Rats were sacrificed on postnatal day 60, and the kidney and bladder tissues were removed. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome for histomorphological evaluation. the TUNEL method was used to assess apoptosis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used for the kidney tissue. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters were studied in terms of biochemical values. Results: the findings showed that tissue malondialdehyde increased in EMFG compared to CG and SG in both kidney (p=0.004 and p=0.004, respectively) and bladder tissue (p = 0.004, p = 0.006, respectively), while catalase and glutathione levels decreased compared to CG (p=0.004; p = 0.004, respectively) and SG (p=0.004; p = 0.004, respectively). in the EMF group, pathologies such as dilatation and vacuolization in the distal and proximal tubules, degeneration in glomeruli and an increase in cells tending to apoptosis were observed in kidney tissue. in bladder tissue, degeneration in the transitional epithelium and stromal irregularity and an increase in cells tending to apoptosis were observed in EMFG. Additionally, EMFG samples exhibited glomerular capillary degeneration with capillary basement membranes under TEM. Conclusions: We conclude that continuous exposure to the effect of 900-MHz EMF for 1 h a day on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive, causes an increase in oxidative stress and various pathological changes in male rat kidney and bladder tissues.